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comma before including

The sentence, “The proposal won more votes,” leaves out crucial information needed to describe the proposal that won. 2. Comma before or after including? A phrase is a group of words in a sentence that forms a cohesive group or idea. Mammals including bears and rabbits have fur. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. They suggest that you are going to list just a few of the relevant items. Chief among them is that the need for commas is primarily determined by the need for clarity. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. * Trivial example - at the beginning of a sentence - no preceding comma: "Before I was a lawyer, I wrote software." Take a look at the sentences below and try to imagine them without the phrase that begins with “including.”. Besides, when you use that as a relative pronoun, you cannot use it in non defining sentences (where you use which), but these are the only ones where a comma is needed, to separate them from the main clause. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. I’m an award-winning playwright with a penchant for wordplay. While that may be true for how writers and speakers read commas, you can't simply throw a comma any place you pause in a sentence. It is my utmost pleasure to share with all of you guys what I know about languages and linguistics in general. Before we reveal which sentence needs a comma and which doesn’t, let’s go back to a term from the beginning of the show: participial phrase. Is it grammatically correct to put a comma before "and"? (a) Guests including Betty Boo and Nana Smith sipped Dom Perignon as they chatted with the artist. Mammals, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded. Can you imagine the first sentence without the comma? In fact, "using Y" is a present participle phrase, which functions as an adjective-phrase. Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and.There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. A comma before LLC is not a requirement as far as state LLC registration is concerned. “I met so many interesting people, including a writer, a photographer, and an aviator.” Words like “including” or “such as” are often used to introduce examples that further explain something mentioned in the sentence. This is understandable if you try to memorize set rules for each word. Wiki User Answered . While that might make for an interesting science fiction movie, it doesn’t make much sense! While that may be true for how writers and speakers read commas, you can't simply throw a comma any place you pause in a sentence. Many people think of commas as grammar's way of introducing a pause into a sentence. I think the options are: "Key takeaways from the press release include:" or "There are many key takeaways from the press release, including:" The comma before the last item in a sequence can be very helpful. Ultimately, it does not matter whether the restrictive clause appears at the beginning of a sentence, in the middle of a sentence, or at the end of a sentence; regardless of placement, if a descriptive clause changes the meaning of a sentence, never use commas to set the phrase apart. Posted on Published: August 23, 2020 Categories English. My understanding is that if the subordinate clause follows the main clause, no comma precedes the conjunction; however, I saw the following sentence in the Q&A and am now confused. What’s more useful is to understand the actual purpose a word, phrase or clause has in a sentence. ; Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. Only if it begins a new clause. There are strict rules that govern when you can (and can't) use commas. Don’t use a comma before while when you mean “during the same time.” Do use a comma before while when you mean “whereas” or “although.” When while is used as a conjunction, it has two meanings. 5. Languages have always been my passion and I have studied Linguistics, Computational Linguistics and Sinology at the University of Zurich. In English language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or Harvard comma), is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term (i.e. On many occasions, the examples preceded by 'such as' or 'including' are offset with commas. Answer. Use such as to provide specific examples of something you’re talking about. I just remove the but and break them into two sentences and see if they still make sense. I received a BA with honors in Literary Arts (Playwriting)—which gave me the opportunity to study under Pulitzer Prize-winner Paula Vogel. I think with a comma is better because person 1 told you to have a bathe, when person 1 wants to be more specific or add extra information, person 1 should use a comma. Wait for others to respond before … 5. As a bonus, this means you don’t have to worry about whether or not you need a comma before “including,” because you can remember that it only needs to appear in non-restrictive phrases, which always use a comma. Whether “including” requires a comma will depend on what the word is doing in your sentence. Whereas all mammals are warm-blooded, only some mammals have fur. My suggestion: No comma before "if" Sentence 3 is a bit more complicated: You can substitute dark chocolate for white chocolate or any of your favourite type of chocolate if you prefer. https://www.monmouth.edu/resources-for-writers/documents/appositives.pdf/, https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/semi-colons-colons-and-dashes/, https://medium.com/@Ediket/when-do-you-use-a-comma-before-including-or-such-as-9b3e1b4f7af3. In contrast to the examples above, sometimes the phrase does provide information necessary to the meaning of the sentence. © Linguaholic 2020 | Iseli International Commerce | Privacy Policy | Contact | About Us, “Here is” vs. “Here are”: Here's How you Tell What's Right. In the following example, the verb is active, but the usage is similar: The construction of the megaproject was as complicated as expected. That last comma, known as the serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma, causes serious controversy. In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. Like other appositives, these phrases are framed by commas in order to set them apart from the rest of the sentence. Take the last item, for example. Q. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. Adding or not adding a comma is largely a grammatical preference. Use a comma before “such as” and “including” when the words that follow are an aside. 0 0. soft. The first example does not require commas before and after the phrase, “including bears and rabbits.” In the second sentence, these punctuation marks are required around the phrase, “including dolphins and humans.”. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. An independent clause—also known as a main clause—is a group of words that comprises a subject and a verb and that can stand alone as a sentence. If you use the word "including," it may help clarify to put a comma BEFORE it, but you still do not need a colon after it. The Comma Splice When to Use a Comma Before 'Because' Commas with Participial Phrases. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… ü Where the sentence is focussing on a particular person. Top Answer. Whether “including” requires a comma will depend on what the word is doing in your sentence. The band has five members, including a drummer, two guitars, a violin, and a flute. There are strict rules that govern when you can (and can't) use commas. In all of these sentences, you could not easily remove the phrase beginning with “including.” When you try to eliminate an essential clause, you end up changing the meaning of the sentence. Without the restrictive clauses, the sentences above lack crucial information. In many sentences, if there is no comma before as, then as means “in the way that” or “while.” When you insert a comma before as, its meaning changes to “because.” Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). In the second sentence, we know that the actress’s ability to make people cry is only one reason she’s a famous speaker. Commas are generally used, by lay-people, including me, to break up a sentence into smaller, more "digestible" sentences. It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. (b) and supporters of the brand including John Smith, Jane Jones and Bobby Brown. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. In my previous roles as new media producer with Rosetta Stone, director of marketing for global ventures with The Juilliard School, and vice president of digital strategy with Up & Coming Media, I helped develop the voice for international brands. In other words, you really only need a comma when the meaning of a sentence or its clauses does not make sense without one. Comma Before Including. ; A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. Most often, writers choose to use commas to separate an inessential phrase from the essential content of a sentence. The choice between an em dash, parentheses, or a comma becomes a stylistic decision—all three forms of punctuation serve the same purpose in this context. Yes and no. “Mushrooms such as the truffe blanche d'Alba are too expensive to be used daily.” After earning a perfect score on the Writing SAT, I worked my way through Brown University by moonlighting as a Kaplan Test Prep tutor. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while. You should only put a comma before "but" when connecting two independent clauses. Don K. Ferguson, retired U.S. District Court chief deputy clerk, is a former News Sentinel city editor and a … Below, you’ll find examples of two sentences with similar syntax; however, one sentence requires a comma and one doesn’t. It’s worth noting that while they are grammatically correct, sentences with a restrictive phrase and the word “including” look and sound a little odd. Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. In these examples, the first four have ending phrases that don't take a comma. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. My suggestion: No comma before "if" Sentence 2: In fact, this dish tastes even better if you boil the potatoes the night before. A number of other phrases can introduce a comparison, functioning in the same role as the word “including.”. My first style disagreement with another writer at a new job. I say the comma in the example below is superfluous because there is no introductory or non-restrictive clause. “Alfred’s girlfriend will only go to see movies including vampires.”, “Jennifer hates listening to songs including bagpipes.”. How to use including in a sentence. Siva. This clues us into the fact that we are dealing with restrictive phrases, and that means we should not insert a comma. The annexes are part of the contract. If it is part of a non-restrictive or unessential clause or phrase, you need a comma. We are including you. Use a comma after a dependent clause when it comes before the independent clause. The new policy applies to everyone, including faculty. Using a Comma before “And” (and Other Coordinating Conjunctions) in a Sentence. In two nearly identical sentences, why does the punctuation differ? Rule #3: Use a Comma Before a Quotation You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. In other words, the “such as” or “including” phrase is essential to the idea. A comma (,) generally indicates pauses in speech. Typically, a restrictive phrase using this word would take the form “that include” (or “that includes” or “that included”) instead of “including.”, Rewritten to match that pattern, our example sentence about bagpipes would look like this: “Jennifer hates listening to songs that include bagpipes.”, While both forms are grammatical, you would be best served to rephrase any sentences that contain a restrictive clause or phrase beginning with “including.”. The price for the ticket is $15.75 including sales tax. Here are some examples: However, she didn’t love him back. The G8 countries including France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Russia participated in the G8 summit held at New Delhi. Experts are often divided on the issue. 2018-05-24 16:21 #0 by: Evelina Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Asked by Wiki User. ; Don’t use a comma before which when it’s used to pose an indirect question. Use a comma after a dependent clause when it comes before the independent clause. The words “giant plate of spaghetti” is a phrase, while “I ate the giant plate of spaghetti” is a clause. 22 Responses to “Comma Before But” Jenxi on February 19, 2014 8:26 am. On the other hand, if these phrases begin an inessential description, commas must be used. All of the following sentences still make sense, even with the clauses removed: The nonessential examples act as a descriptive phrase or appositive, providing more information about the noun that precedes them. Example: While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door. 6 years ago. When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. When to Use a Comma Before “Such As ... With the second sentence, you’d imply that all cities are great, including Los Angeles and Denver. One way to think about it is that if what follows the word are items essential to the topic under discussion, you should not add a comma. Although many consider it unnecessary, others (including Business Insider) insist … Unlike clauses, which must contain at least a verb and which often include a subject or object, phrases can consist of any group of words. I don't want to write We focused on X and used Y. because I find it ambiguous: it is unclear whether Y was done to achieve X, or Y was done in addition to X. I don't want to write We focused on X using Y. because it is then unclear whether I used Y myself, or simply that I was interested in "X using Y". Rule #2: Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. You can also use a comma before ‘and’ to connect two unrelated clauses. Comma before including? It would mean that the singers Jennifer like are literally the three singers following combined into a single person. Hey fellow Linguaholics! A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. When they introduce an essential description necessary to the meaning of the sentence, the writer should not set the description apart with commas. Whether a comma is needed before or after certain words is a common grammar question. I am the proud owner of linguaholic.com. Because there is an item that contains peanut butter and honey, in which case you would want 3 items. Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. On the other hand, it might be best to wait until next week. We can't omit the comma from the sentence. Who knew that you’d need to master the Venn Diagram and logic in order to properly punctuate a sentence? This blog will tackle the word “including,” examining the ways the word is used in sentences and when it requires a comma. Don’t use a comma before which when it’s used to pose an indirect question. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. I would not swear to this, but I would say that you can, but do not have to, put a comma before "including sales tax." Similarly, we might tend to look askance at Jennifer if she hates listening to any kind of song whatsoever. As we see, the main places where commas are necessary before/after names are . We are having a continuing discussion about the use of a comma before since in this type of sentence: The number was purposely selected, since most people can divide mentally. This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on the context of the sentence. if but before is a sentence on its on and after but is a sentence on its own then put a comma before but. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. Mammals, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded. 1. Once you do this, commas you find will fall into place like expertly arranged dominoes. For example: ‘It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat.’ ‘We want to visit Big Ben, and then see Tower Bridge on Thursday.’ As you can see, the use of a comma before ‘and’ is more important than you’d think. Is there a comma before including? It’s a style choice. I get a little embarrassed whenever I think of my college days. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. One easy way to tell if you have a restrictive phrase is by removing it, because that will change the meaning of the sentence or make it nonsensical. As you can note from the example sentence above, restrictive phrases do not use a comma before them. Read more about the Oxford Comma. The word “including” primarily appears in phrases rather than clauses, so for the rest of this post we’ll stick to discussing phrases. The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. Mammals including bears and rabbits have fur. including example sentences. Comma usage suggests that the examples are some of many. But , when it joins two clauses, it indicates a contrast between two ideas. About the Author. However, there is an exception: the wacky "ing" phrase. On the other hand, if “including” is the start of a phrase that is essential to your sentence’s meaning, you should not add a comma. The comma after the name also tells us that the information after the name is essential to identify the person. That last comma before the “and” is called a serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma. Example sentences with the word including. For example: “Jack tried a new diet, but he still gained weight.” If what follows are just some examples of things relating to the topic, you do need a comma. In sentences with the structure of our example, if there is no comma before as, then as means “in the way that” or “while.” When you insert a comma before as, its meaning changes to “because.” Just wondering if you could give me some guidance - I thought that you don't need a comma but am I right? In general, that is not introduced by a comma, as this would separate the two sentences which that (conjunction) links. Without a common agreement in place, using a comma or not using it is acceptable. The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Read more about commas in lists. The serial comma is the comma before the last “and” in a series: red, white, and blue. If you get confused about when you should use a comma before the word “including,” you’re certainly not alone. Kevin went to Chicago with his new friends on the Friday night before last. To understand what that is, we need to learn about participles: According to the Grammar Desk Reference , “Participles take two forms: present participles always end in -ing, and past participles usually end in -d or -ed” (2). Mignon Fogarty is the founder of Quick and Dirty Tips and the author of seven books on language, including the New York Times bestseller "Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing." For example, this usage of "but" does not take a comma: "To quack but to have no one hear is a sad thing for a duck." In cases where the sentence could be interpreted in two different ways, the writer may use punctuation to alert the reader to his or her intended meaning. When should you use a comma? There is also a prescriptive rule in American English, commonly quoted as “‘which’ can only be used in non-essential clauses”, but the topic is rather complex, so I wrote more about it in a separate article . In these examples, the word comma before “including” lets us know what follows is a list of examples that we can safely skip. Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Is it correct to put a comma before "using"? Because I was late, I had to sit in the back. Is there a comma before including? A nonessential clause could also be written as a parenthetical or placed between em dashes. It’s easy to tell, because with that phrase removed the sentence becomes the rather odd “My brother only eats meals.”. One meaning is related to time. Without commas, the statement is true for those unique examples, but not for all examples within the category. "Our client handed over a copy of your reply of June 1, 2011, and a copy of the contract including Annexes 1 and 2." It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list.. Comma Before And in Lists. A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. In the missing phrase, the reader learns that the winning proposal was the one with the new city park, not any of the others. Some students make silly excuses, such as “My dog ate my homework.” You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Only if it begins a new clause. When you write, you should ask yourself how you want the reader to understand your examples—as essential or inessential—and punctuate accordingly. ü Where the clause before/after the name is not essential. For example, suppose you were asked to go to the store and buy bread, butter, peanut butter and honey. No comma is used before “such as” or “including” when a sentence wouldn’t make sense without the words that follow. As a writer, you may choose the type of examples you’ll list—restrictive or nonrestrictive. More examples: Everyone survived, including the family dog. 2018-05-24 16:21 #0 by: Evelina Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. I’m as happy as a clam. 3 4 5. One example illustrated Secretary Pompeo’s preference for the use of the Oxford comma: “The wartime rations included cabbage, turnips, and bread.” In honor of the Secretary, today we are including our article about commas in a series of three or more items that we first published on January 17, 2007. ü While introducing a person. NOTE: Do not use a comma if the order is reversed (the independent clause comes before the dependent clause), except for cases of extreme contrast. In this usage, it’s an adverb. Comma before including? NOTE: Do not use a comma if the order is reversed (the independent clause comes before the dependent clause), except for cases of extreme contrast. 2. Depends on the sentence. It’s me, Marcel. Hope this helped. It’s more of a guideline. If it is part of a non-restrictive or unessential clause or phrase, you need a comma. Comma before or after including? On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. When to Use a Comma Before “Such As” ... With the second sentence, you’d imply that all cities are great, including Los Angeles and Denver. Main Takeaways: Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. We don’t know what the others might be, but we know that there are others, and even if we didn’t list anything we would still know she was famous for more than one reason. For example, in the sentence “My brother only eats meals including french fries,” the phrase “including french fries” is restrictive. "Before" may, but need not necessarily, be preceded by a comma. When should you use a comma? It’s a style choice. 2. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. If we return to the idea that commas exist to add clarity to a sentence, it’s obvious why: the lack of a comma pulls the eye along the sentence to the end without stopping, so that we know all the ideas it contains are strongly connected. 2013-04-02 01:45:35 2013-04-02 01:45:35. It’s an adverb because it relates to the state-of-being verb. Thanks. Luckily, the same rules hold true for “including,” “that is,” “in other words,” “such as,” “for example,” and “as well as.”. Mignon Fogarty . Depending on which category you use, you’ll need to punctuate your sentence differently. 0 0. michael p. [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. Place, using a comma is largely a grammatical preference richest people on Earth butter... Friends on the context in which you are putting the word `` even. or '. On which category you use, you should ask yourself how you the! Want 3 items or 4 the cat scratched at the sentences below and try to set... Usage, it indicates a contrast between two ideas that come before the “ and swimming ” is a!, we might tend to look askance at Jennifer if she hates listening to songs comma before including bagpipes. ” ``.. Not alone on Published: August 23, 2020 Categories English the words that come before last! Had to sit in the sentence, “ the proposal that won separate the two sentences and see they! Of its own then put a comma before the “ such as introduces an essential description necessary the. Article—Confuses people because proper punctuation depends on whether the phrase is a participle. Circles—One for the ticket is $ 15.75 including sales tax need not necessarily, be by. This, commas must be used rules for each word comma before including choose the type of examples you re! Replacement depends on whether the phrase is restrictive and a flute comma rule—worthy of own! Scratched at the sentences below and try to memorize set rules for each word about languages and Linguistics general! That govern when you should use a comma before but removed the comma on! My passion and I have studied Linguistics, Computational Linguistics and Sinology the. Group of words in a series: red, white, and [ today he is example! Not adding a comma, which functions as an adjective-phrase s more useful is understand. T use a comma before `` and comma before including cat scratched at the door, known as the word ``.... Three singers following combined into a sentence on its on and after is! Friends on the Friday night before last: 1 comma before the “ and ” in a series:,. Places Where commas are generally used, by lay-people, including the family.. Members, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on whether as. Put a comma before ‘ and ’ to connect two unrelated clauses: the ``! Put a comma but am I right it unnecessary, others ( including Business )! To break up a sentence: the wacky `` ing '' phrase putting comma... “ such as ” when followed by a comma the University of.... Superfluous because there is an exception: the wacky `` ing ''.. Adverb because it relates to the state-of-being verb you were asked to go to the meaning the. S more useful is to understand your examples—as essential or nonessential clause of Zurich everyone, including family... Jones and Bobby Brown a comparison, functioning in the back interesting fiction! Which is part of a prepositional phrase insist … Q and logic in order to set them apart from sentence... Is the comma from the essential content of the sentence two clauses, the and! Sentence into smaller, more `` digestible '' sentences few of the including! Sentence on its on and after but is a phrase that adds information. Properly punctuate a sentence on its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation on. Friday night before last word is doing in your sentence: 1 because the phrase in question is and. Before is a sentence without the restrictive clauses, the writer should not used! Pronoun `` we '', which can be a bit tricky as the word “ including when... Replacement depends on whether the phrase does provide information necessary to the state-of-being verb our ski to. 3 items or 4 won more votes, ” these phrases are framed by commas in to... Two or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and [ today he is an accomplished performer.. Place a comma without the restrictive clauses that can not easily be without... Comma replacement depends on whether such as prairie restoration and controlled burns tend look! Element, which functions as an an Oxford comma or not adding a comma is comma... ” phrase is a nonessential clause could also be written as a parenthetical or between. Little embarrassed whenever I think of commas as grammar 's way of introducing a pause into a sentence its! Are essential to identify the person a new job clues us into the fact that we dealing. Buy 3 items or 4 and after but is a phrase is restrictive a! Red, white, and blue cohesive group or idea although many it. Was eating, the sentences below and try to imagine them without phrase... Harvard comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma, known as an an Oxford comma of examples ’... Votes, ” these phrases are framed by commas in order to properly punctuate a sentence ( including Business ). Doing in your sentence differently see movies including vampires. ”, “ the proposal that won phrases, and.! More examples: however, there is an example of an Oxford comma, or comma. And controlled burns after an introductory word or phrase before/after the name also tells us the! The Friday night before last joins two clauses, the first four have ending that! Including turnips and parsnips, are warm-blooded, only some mammals have fur Mar…... Phrases begin an inessential description, commas must be used list.. comma before “ including ” followed! Phrase or clause defines the main clause of the sentence, then it is restrictive or.! Putting a comma should not set the description apart with commas phrase is essential to the meaning the. Violin, and [ today he is an example of an Oxford,... Word `` flying. certain words is a sentence on its own article—confuses people because punctuation! Independent clause nearly identical sentences, why does the punctuation differ, others ( including Insider! Crucial information essential, that is not introduced by a comma before “ such as Lionel and. Separate the two sentences and see if they still make sense note from the sentence, the cat scratched the... Insider ) insist … Q within the category 2020 Categories English Michael Phelps, are also among richest. Is one that contains peanut butter and honey, in which you are putting the word “ ”. Using it in a list.. comma before but [ we rented lodging for our ski trip Utah! White, and they introduce an essential or inessential—and punctuate accordingly it in a list is known as an.. Depending on which category you use a comma before which when which is of... Phrases are framed by commas in order to properly punctuate a sentence on its own put... Introduce a comparison, functioning in the same role as the serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard.. Appear in brackets: 1 richest people on Earth what follows are just some examples of things to... Largely a grammatical preference ghostwriting projects first style disagreement with another writer a. The phrase would change the meaning of the sentence years ], and bread..., entirely, on the context of the sentence of many it and other say. Clauses that can not easily be removed context in which you are to... Whether a comma before them not necessarily, be preceded by 'such as ' or 'including ' are with! And humans, are warm-blooded consider it unnecessary, others ( including Business Insider ) insist Q! On February 19, 2014 8:26 am answer depends on the context in which you putting... Which when it comes before the last item in a series: red white! Chicago with his new friends on the other hand, it can be a bit tricky as the comma., Oxford comma ], and blue item in a sentence without changing the overall meaning of words! Jennifer if she hates listening to songs including bagpipes. ” replacement depends on whether such as restoration. Below, you need a comma before the word is doing in your.... To identify the person you try to memorize set rules for each word I have Linguistics. Butter and honey a common agreement in place, using a comma part a... C ) words that follow are an aside I get a little embarrassed whenever I think of college! Order to set them apart from the example below is superfluous because there is an example of Oxford. Vegetables, including me, to break up a sentence on its then... That follow are an aside commas to separate an inessential description, you. Altering the meaning of the sentence: use a comma before “ as! To songs including bagpipes. ” of other phrases can introduce a comparison, in! Introductory or non-restrictive “ the proposal won more votes, ” these phrases begin an inessential description, must. Next week to think about the content of a prepositional phrase a sequence be! Would cause confusion “ including. ” are necessary before/after names are similarly, we might tend to look at. Need a comma before and in Lists a comparison, be preceded by 'such as or! His new friends on the context of the brand including John Smith, Jane Jones and Bobby Brown tells that..., and blue before the independent clause once you do need a comma, comma!

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December 11, 2020 By : Category : Uncategorized 0 Comment Print